A binary heap is a heap data structure created using a binary tree.

binary tree has two rules –

- Binary Heap has to be complete binary tree at all levels except the last level. This is called
*shape property*.
- All nodes are either greater than equal to (
*Max-Heap*) or less than equal to (*Min-Heap*) to each of its child nodes. This is called *heap property*.

**Implementation:**

- Use array to store the data.
- Start storing from index 1, not 0.
- For any given node at position i:
- Its
**Left Child** is at *[2*i]* if available.
- Its
**Right Child** is at *[2*i+1]* if available.
- Its
**Parent Node** is at *[i/2]*if available.

Heap Majorly has 3 operations –

- Insert Operation
- Delete Operation
- Extract-Min (OR Extract-Max)

**Insert Operation:**

- Add the element at the bottom leaf of the Heap.
- Perform the Bubble-Up operation.
- All Insert Operations must perform the
*bubble-up* operation(*it is also called as up-heap, percolate-up, sift-up, trickle-up, heapify-up, or cascade-up*)

**Bubble-up Operation**:

- If inserted element is smaller than its parent node in case of Min-Heap OR greater than its parent node in case of Max-Heap, swap the element with its parent.
- Keep repeating the above step, if node reaches its correct position, STOP.

Insert() – Bubble-Up Min-Heap

**Extract-Min OR Extract-Max Operation:**

- Take out the element from the root.( it will be minimum in case of Min-Heap and maximum in case of Max-Heap).
- Take out the last element from the last level from the heap and replace the root with the element.
- Perform
*Sink-Down*
- All delete operation must perform Sink-Down Operation ( also known as
*bubble-down*, *percolate-down*, *sift-down*, *trickle down*, *heapify-down*, *cascade-down**).*

**Sink-Down Operation:**

- If replaced element is greater than any of its child node in case of Min-Heap OR smaller than any if its child node in case of Max-Heap, swap the element with its smallest child(Min-Heap) or with its greatest child(Max-Heap).
- Keep repeating the above step, if node reaches its correct position, STOP.

Delete OR Extract Min from Heap

**Delete Operation:**

- Find the index for the element to be deleted.
- Take out the last element from the last level from the heap and replace the index with this element .
- Perform
*Sink-Down*

**Time and Space Complexity:**

**Space** |
O(n) |

**Search** |
O(n) |

**Insert** |
O(log n) |

**Delete** |
O(log n) |

**Complete Code for Min-Heap:**

**Output**:

Original Array : 3 2 1 7 8 4 10 16 12
Min-Heap : 1 3 2 7 8 4 10 16 12
1 3 2 12 8 4 10 16 0

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